I. Of God and the Creation of All Things
Since we find it testified that without faith it is impossible to please God, and that he that would come to God must believe
that there is a God, and that He is a rewarder of them that seek Him; therefore, we confess with the mouth, and believe with
the heart, with all the pious, according to the holy Scriptures, in one eternal, almighty, and incomprehensible God, the Father,
Son, and Holy Ghost, and in none more, nor in any other; before whom no God was made or existed, nor shall there be any after
Him: for of Him, and through Him, and in Him, are all things; to Him be praise and honor forever and ever, Amen. Heb. 11:6;
Deut. 6:4; Gen. 17:1; Isa. 46:8; I John 5:7; Rom. 11:36.
Of this same one God, who worketh all in all, we believe and confess that He is the Creator of all things visible and invisible;
that He, in six days, created, made, and prepared, heaven and earth, and the sea, and all that in them is; and that He still
governs and upholds the same and all His works through His wisdom, might, and the word of His power. I Cor. 12:6; Gen. I;
And when He had finished His works, and had ordained and prepared them, each in its nature and properties, good and upright,
according to His pleasure, He created the first man, the father of us Ml, Adam; whom He formed of the dust of the ground,
and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, so that he became a living soul, created by God in His own image and likeness,
in righteousness and holiness, unto eternal life. He regarded him above all other creatures, endowed him with many high and
glorious gifts, placed him in the pleasure garden or Paradise, and gave him a command and prohibition; afterwards He took
a rib from Adam, made a woman therefrom, and brought her to him, joining and giving her to him for a helpmate, companion,
and wife; and in consequence of this He also caused, that from this one man Adam, all men that dwell upon the whole earth
have descended. Gen. 1:27; 2:7, 17, 18, 22.
II. Of the Fall of Man
We believe and confess, according to the holy Scriptures, that these our first parents, Adam and Eve, did not continue
long in this glorious state in which they were created, but that they, seduced by the subtlety and deceit of the serpent,
and the envy of the devil, transgressed the high commandment of God and became disobedient to their Creator; through which
disobedience sin has come into the world, and death by sin, which has thus passed upon all men, for that all have sinned,
and, hence, brought upon themselves the wrath of God, and condemnation; for which reason they were of God driven out of Paradise,
or the pleasure garden, to till the earth, in sorrow to eat of it, and to eat their bread in the sweat of their face, till
they should return to the earth, from which they were taken; and that they, therefore, through this one sin, became so ruined,
separated, and estranged from God, that they, neither through themselves, nor through any of their descendants, nor through
angels, nor men, nor any other creature in heaven or on earth, could be raised up, redeemed, or reconciled to God, but would
have had to be eternally lost, had not God, in compassion for His creatures, made provision for it, and interposed with His
love and mercy.
Gen. 3:6; IV Esd. 3:7; Rom. 5:12, 18; Gen. 3:23; Ps. 49:8; Rev. 5:9; John 3:16.
III. Of the Restoration of Man Through the Promise of the Coming Christ
Concerning the restoration of the first man and his posterity we confess and believe, that God, notwithstanding their fall,
transgression, and sin, and their utter inability, was nevertheless not willing to cast them off entirely, or to let them
be forever lost; but that He called them again to Him, comforted them, and showed them that with Him there was yet a means
for their reconciliation, namely, the immaculate Lamb, the Son of God, who had been foreordained thereto before the foundation
of the world, and was promised them while they were yet in Paradise, for consolation, redemption, and salvation, for themselves
as well as for their posterity; yea, who through faith, had, from that time on, been given them as their own; for whom all
the pious patriarchs, unto whom this promise was frequently renewed, longed and inquired, and to whom, through faith, they
looked forward from afar, waiting for the fulfillment, that He by His coming, would redeem, liberate, and raise the fallen
race of man from their sin, guilt; and unrighteousness. John 1:29; I Pet. 1:19; Gen. 3:15; I John 3:8; 2:1; Heb. 11:13, 39;
IV. Of the Coming of Christ into This World, and the Purpose for Which He Came
We believe and confess further, that when the time of the promise, for which all the pious forefathers had so much longed
and waited, had come and was fulfilled, this previously promised Messiah, Redeemer, and Saviour, proceeded from God, was sent,
and, according to the prediction of the prophets, and the testimony of the evangelists, came into the world, yea, into the
flesh, was made manifest, and the Word, Himself became flesh and man; that He was conceived in the virgin Mary, who was espoused
to a man named Joseph, of the house of David; and that she brought Him forth as her first-born son, at Bethlehem, wrapped
Him in swaddling clothes, and laid Him in a manger. John 4:25; 16:28; I Tim. 3:16; John 1:14; Matt. 1:23; Luke 2:7.
We confess and believe also, that this is the same whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting, without
beginning of days, or end of life; of whom it is testified that He Himself is the Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending,
the first and the last; that He is the same, and no other, who was foreordained, promised, sent, and came into the world;
who is God's only, first and own Son; who was before John the Baptist, before Abraham, before the world; yea, who was David's
Lord, and the God of the whole world, the first-born of every creature; who was brought into the world, and for whom a body
was prepared, which He yielded up as a sacrifice and offering, for a sweet savor unto God, yea, for the consolation, redemption,
and salvation of all mankind. John 3:16; Heb. 1:6; Rom. 8:32; John 1:30; Matt. 22:43; Col. 1:15; Heb. 10:5.
But as to how and in what manner this precious body was prepared, and how the Word became flesh, and He Himself man, in
regard to this we content ourselves with the statement pertaining to this matter which the worthy evangelists have left us
in their accounts, according to which we confess with all the saints, that He is the Son of the living God, in whom alone
consist all our hope, consolation, redemption, and salvation, which we neither may nor must seek in any other. Luke 1:31,
32; John 20:31; Matt. 16:16.
We furthermore believe and confess with the Scriptures, that, when He had finished His course, and accomplished the work
for which He was sent and came into the world, He was, according to the providence of God, delivered into the hands of the
unrighteous; suffered under the judge, Pontius Pilate; was crucified, dead, was buried, and on the third day, rose from the
dead, and ascended to heaven; and that He sits on the right hand of God the Majesty on high, whence He will come again to
judge the quick and the dead. Luke 22:53; 23:1; 24:6, 7, 51.
And that thus the Son of God died, and tasted death and shed His precious blood for all men; and that He thereby bruised
the serpent's head, destroyed the works of the devil, annulled the handwriting and obtained forgiveness of sins for all mankind;
thus becoming the cause of eternal salvation for all those who, from Adam unto the end of the world, each in his time, believe
in, and obey Him. Gen. 3:15; I John 3:8; Col. 2:14; Rom. 5:18.
V. Of the Law of Christ, i.e., the Holy Gospel or the New Testament
We also believe and confess that before His ascension He instituted His New Testament, and, since it was to be and remain
an eternal Testament, that He confirmed and sealed the same with His precious blood, and gave and left it to His disciples,
yea, charged them so highly with it, that neither angel nor man may alter it, nor add to it nor take away from it; and that
He caused the same, as containing the whole counsel and will of His heavenly Father, as far as is necessary for salvation
to be proclaimed in His name by His beloved apostles, messengers, and ministers-whom He called, chose, and sent into all the
world for that purpose-among all peoples, nations, and tongues; and repentance and remission of sins to be preached and testified
of; and that He accordingly has therein declared all men without distinction, who through faith, as obedient children, heed,
follow, and practice what the same contains, to be His children and lawful heirs; thus excluding no one from the precious
inheritance of eternal salvation, except the unbelieving and disobedient, the stiff-necked and obdurate, who despise it, and
incur this through their own sins, thus making themselves unworthy of eternal life. Jer. 31:31; Heb. 9:15-17; Matt. 26:28;
Gal. 1:8; I Tim. 6:3; John 15:15; Matt. 28:19; Mark 16:15; Luke 24:47; Rom. 8:17; Acts 13:46.
VI. Of Repentance and Reformation of Life
We believe and confess, that, since the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth, and, therefore, prone to all
unrighteousness, sin, and wickedness, the first lesson of the precious New Testament of the Son of God is repentance and reformation
of life, and that, therefore, those who have ears to hear, and hearts to understand, must bring forth genuine fruits of repentance,
reform their lives, believe the Gospel, eschew evil and do good, desist from unrighteousness, forsake sin, put off the old
man with his deeds, and put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness: for, neither baptism,
supper, church [membership], nor any other outward ceremony, can without faith, regeneration, change or renewing of life,
avail anything to please God or to obtain of Him any consolation or promise of salvation; but we must go to God with an upright
heart, and in perfect faith, and believe in Jesus Christ, as the Scripture says, and testifies of Him; through which faith
we obtain forgiveness of sins, are sanctified, justified, and made children of God, yea, partake of His mind, nature, and
image, as being born again of God from above, through incorruptible seed. Gen. 8:21; Mark 1:15; Ezek. 12:2; Col. 3:9, 10;
Eph. 4:22, 24; Heb. 10:22, 23; John 7:38.
VII. Of Holy Baptism
Concerning baptism we confess that ~l penitent believers, who, through faith, regeneration, and the renewing of the Holy
Ghost, are made one with God, and are written in heaven, must, upon such Scriptural confession of faith, and renewing of life,
be baptized with water, in the most worthy name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, according to the command
of Christ, and the teaching, example, and practice of the apostles, to the burying of their sins, and thus be incorporated
into the communion of the saints; henceforth to learn to observe all things which the Son of God has taught, left, and commanded
His disciples. Acts 2:38; Matt. 28:19, 20; Rom. 6:4; Mark 16:16; Matt. 3:15; Acts 8:16; 9:18; 10:47; 16:33; Col. 2:11, 12.
VIII. Of the Church of Christ
We believe in, and confess a visible church of God, namely, those who, as has been said before, truly repent and believe,
and are rightly baptized; who are one with God in heaven, and rightly incorporated into the communion of the saints here on
earth. These we confess to be the chosen generation, the royal priesthood, the holy nation, who are declared to be the bride
and wife of Christ, yea, children and heirs of everlasting life, a tent, tabernacle, and habitation of God in the Spirit,
built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, of which Jesus Christ Himself is declared to be the cornerstone (upon
which His church is built). This church of the living God, which He has acquired, purchased, and redeemed with His own precious
blood; with which, according to His promise, He will be and remain always, even unto the end of the world, for consolation
and protection, yea, will dwell and walk among them, and preserve them, so that no floods or tempests, nay, not even the gates
of hell, shall move or prevail against them-this church, we say, may be known by their Scriptural faith, doctrine, love, and
godly conversation, as, also, by the fruitful observance, practice, and maintenance of the true ordinances of Christ, which
He so highly enjoined upon His disciples. I Cor. 12; I Pet. 2.9; John 3.29; Rev. 19.7; Titus 3:6, 7; Eph. 2:19-21; Matt. 16.18;
I Pet. 1.18, 19; Matt. 28.20; II Cor. 6:16; Matt. 7:25.
IX. Of the Election, and Offices of Teachers, Deacons, and Deaconesses in the Church
Concerning the offices and elections in the church, we believe and confess, that, since without offices and ordinances
the church cannot subsist in her growth, nor continue in building, therefore the Lord Jesus Christ Himself, as a husbandman
in His house, has instituted, ordained, enjoined, and commanded His offices and ordinances, how everyone is to walk therein,
and give heed to and perform His work and calling, as is meet, even as He Himself, as the faithful, great, chief Shepherd
and Bishop of our souls, was sent, and came into the world, not to bruise, break, or destroy the souls of men, but to heal
and restore them, to seek the lost, to break down the middle wall of partition, to make of twain one, and thus to gather of
Jews, Gentiles, and all nations, one flock, for a church in His name, for which-that no one should err or be lost-He Himself
laid down His life, thus ministering to their salvation, and liberating and redeeming them, (mark) wherein no one else could
help or assist them. Eph. 4:10-12; I Pet. 2:25; Matt 12:19 18:11 Eph. 2:14; Gal. 3:28; John 10:9, 11, 15; Ps. 49:8.
And that He, moreover, before His departure, left His church supplied with faithful ministers, apostles, evangelists, pastors,
and teachers, whom He before, through the Holy Ghost, had chosen with prayer and supplication; that they might govern the
church, feed His flock, and watch over, protect, and provide for it, yea, do in all things, as He had done before them, had
taught, by example shown, and charged them, to teach to observe all things whatsoever He had commanded them. Luke 10:1; 6:12,
13; John 2:15.
That the apostles, likewise, as faithful followers of Christ, and leaders of the church, were diligent in this respect,
with prayer and supplication to God, through the election of brethren, to provide every city, place, or church, with bishops,
pastors, and leaders, and to ordain such persons thereto, who would take heed unto themselves, and unto the doctrine and flock,
who were sound in faith, pious in life and conversation, and of good report without as well as in the church; that they might
be an example, light, and pattern in all godliness and good works, worthily administering the Lord's ordinances--baptism and
supper-and that they might everywhere (where such could be found) appoint faithful men who would be able to teach others also,
as elders, ordaining them by the laying on of hands in the name of the Lord, and provide for all the wants of the church according
to their ability; so that, as faithful servants, they might husband well their Lord's talent, get gain with it, and, consequently,
save themselves and those who hear them. I Tim. 3:1; Acts 23:24; Titus 1:5; I Tim. 4:16; Titus 2:1, 2; I Tim. 3:7; II Tim.
2:2; I Tim. 4:14; 5:2; Luke 19:13.
That they should also see diligently to it, particularly each among his own over whom he has the oversight, that all places
be well provided with deacons (to look after and care for the poor), who may receive the contributions and alms, in order
to dispense them faithfully and with all propriety to the poor and needy saints. Acts 6:3-6.
And that also honorable aged widows should be chosen and ordained deaconesses, that they with the deacons may visit, comfort,
and care for, the poor, feeble, sick, sorrowing and needy, as also the widows and orphans, and assist in attending to other
wants and necessities of the church to the best of their ability. I Tim. 5:9; Rom. 16:1; Jas. 1:27.
Furthermore, concerning deacons, that they, especially when they are fit, and chosen and ordained thereto by the church,
for the assistance and relief of the elders, may exhort the church (since they, as has been said, are chosen thereto), and
labor also in the Word and in teaching; that each may minister unto the other with the gift he has received of the Lord, so
that through mutual service and the assistance of every member, each in his measure, the body of Christ may be improved, and
the vine and church of the Lord continue to grow, increase, and be built up, according as it is proper.
X. Of the Holy Supper
We also confess and observe the breaking of bread, or Supper, as the Lord Christ Jesus before His suffering instituted
it with bread and wine, and observed and ate with His apostles, commanding them to observe it in remembrance of Him; which
they accordingly taught and practiced in the church, and commanded that it should be kept in remembrance of the suffering
and death of the Lord; and that His precious body was broken, and His blood shed, for us and all mankind, as also the fruits
hereof, namely, redemption and eternal salvation, which He purchased thereby, showing such great love toward us sinful men;
whereby we are admonished to the utmost, to love and forgive one another and our neighbor, as He has done unto us, and to
be mindful to maintain and live up to the unity and fellowship which we have with God and one another, which is signified
to us by this breaking of bread. Matt. 26:26; Mark 14:22; Acts 2:42; I Cor. 10:16; 11:23.
XI. Of the Washing of the Saints' Feet
We also confess a washing of the saints' feet, as the Lord Christ not only instituted, enjoined and commanded it, but Himself,
although He was their Lord and Master, washed His apostles' feet, thereby giving an example that they should likewise wash
one another's feet, and do as He had done unto them; which they accordingly, from this time on, taught believers to observe,
as a sign of true humility, and, especially, to remember by this feet washing, the true washing, whereby we are washed through
His precious blood, and made pure after the soul. John 13:4-17; I Tim. 5:10.
XII. Of the State of Matrimony
We confess that there is in the church of God an honorable state of matrimony, of two free, believing persons, in accordance
with the manner after which God originally ordained the same in Paradise, and instituted it Himself with Adam and Eve, and
that the Lord Christ did away and set aside all the abuses of marriage which had meanwhile crept in, and referred all to the
original order, and thus left it. Gen. 1:27; Mark 10:4.
In this manner the Apostle Paul also taught and permitted matrimony in the church, and left it free for every one to be
married, according to the original order, in the Lord, to whomsoever one may get to consent. By these words, in the Lord,
there is to be understood, we think, that even as the patriarchs had to marry among their kindred or generation, so the believers
of the New Testament have likewise no other liberty than to marry among the chosen generation and spiritual kindred of Christ,
namely, such, and no others, who have previously become united with the church as one heart and soul, have received one baptism,
and stand in one communion, faith, doctrine and practice, before they may unite with one another by marriage. Such are then
joined by God in His church according to the original order; and this is called, marrying in the Lord. II Cor. 7:2; I Cor.
9:5; Gen. 24:4; 28:2; I Cor. 7:39.
XIII. Of the Office of the Secular Authority
We believe and confess that God has ordained power and authority, and set them to punish the evil, and protect the good,
to govern the world, and maintain countries and cities, with their subjects, in good order and regulation; and that we, therefore,
may not despise, revile, or resist the same, but must acknowledge and honor them as the ministers of God, and be subject and
obedient unto them, yea, ready for all good works, especially in that which is not contrary to the law, will, and commandment
of God; also faithfully pay custom, tribute, and taxes, and to render unto them their dues, even also as the Son of God taught
and practiced, and commanded His disciples to do; that we, moreover, must constantly and earnestly pray to the Lord for them
and their welfare, and for the prosperity of the country, that we may dwell under its protection, earn our livelihood, and
lead a quiet, peaceable life, with all godliness and honesty; and, furthermore, that the Lord would recompense unto them,
here, and afterwards in eternity, all benefits, liberty, and favor which we enjoy here under their praiseworthy administration.
Rom. 13:1-7; Titus 3:1; I Pet. 2:17; Matt. 22:21; 17:27; I Tim. 2:1.
XIV. Of Revenge
As regards revenge, that is, to oppose an enemy with the sword, we believe and confess that the Lord Christ has forbidden
and set aside to His disciples and followers all revenge and retaliation, and commanded them to render to no one evil for
evil, or cursing for cursing, but to put the sword into the sheath, or, as the prophets have predicted, to beat the swords
into ploughshares. Matt. 5:39, 44; Rom. 12:14; I Pet. 3:9; Isa. 2:4; Micah 4:3; Zech. 9:8, 9.
From this we understand that therefore, and according to His example, we must not inflict pain, harm, or sorrow upon any
one, but seek the highest welfare and salvation of all men, and even, if necessity require it, flee for the Lord's sake from
one city or country into another, and suffer the spoiling of our goods; that we must not harm any one, and, when we are smitten,
rather turn the other cheek also, than take revenge or retaliate. Matt. 5:39.
And, moreover, that we must pray for our enemies, feed and refresh them whenever they are hungry or thirsty, and thus convince
them by well-doing, and overcome all ignorance. Rom. 12:19, 20.
Finally, that we must do good and commend ourselves to every man's conscience; and, according to the law of Christ, do
unto no one that which we would not have done to us. II Cor. 4:2; Matt. 7:12.
XV. Of the Swearing of Oaths
Concerning the swearing of oaths we believe and confess that the Lord Christ has set aside and forbidden the same to His
disciples, that they should not swear at all, but that yea should be yea, and nay, nay; from which we understand that all
oaths, high and low, are forbidden, and that instead of them we are to confirm all our promises and obligations, yea, all
our declarations and testimonies of any matter, only with our word yea, in that which is yea, and with nay, in that which
is nay; yet, that we must always, in all matters, and with everyone, adhere to, keep, follow, and fulfill the same, as though
we had confirmed it with a solemn oath. And if we do this, we trust that no one, not even the Magistracy itself, will have
just reason to lay a greater burden on our mind and conscience. Matt. 5:34, 35; Jas. 5:12; II Cor. 1:17.
XVI. Of the Ecclesiastical Ban, or Separation from the Church
We also believe in, and confess, a ban, separation, and Christian correction in the church, for amendment, and not for
destruction, in order to distinguish that which is pure from the impure: namely, when any one, after he is enlightened, has
accepted the knowledge of the truth, and been incorporated into the communion of the saints, sins again unto death, either
through willfulness, or through presumption against God, or through some other cause, and falls into the unfruitful works
of darkness, thereby becoming separated from God, and forfeiting the kingdom of God, that such a one, after the deed is manifest
and sufficiently known to the church, may not remain in the congregation of the righteous, but, as an offensive member and
open sinner, shall and must be separated, put away, reproved before all, and purged out as leaven; and this for his amendment,
as an example, that others may fear, and to keep the church pure, by cleansing her from such spots, lest, in default of this,
the name of the Lord be blasphemed, the church dishonored, and offense given to them that are without; and finally, that the
sinner may not be condemned with the world, but become convinced in his mind, and be moved to sorrow, repentance, and reformation.
Jer. 59:2; I Cor. 5:5, 13; I Tim. 5:20; I Cor. 5:6; II Cor. 10:8; 13:10.
Further, concerning brotherly reproof or admonition, as also the instruction of the erring it is necessary to exercise
all diligence and care, to watch over them and to admonish them with all meekness, that they may be bettered, and to reprove,
according as is proper, the stubborn who remain obdurate; in short, the church must put away from her the wicked (either in
doctrine or life), and no other. Jas. 5:19; Titus 3:10; I Cor. 5:13.
XVII. Of Shunning the Separated
Concerning the withdrawing from, or shunning the separated, we believe and confess, that if any one, either through his
wicked life or perverted doctrine, has so far fallen that he is separated from God, and, consequently, also separated and
punished by the church, the same must, according to the doctrine of Christ and His apostles, be shunned, without distinction,
by all the fellow members of the church, especially those to whom it is known, in eating, drinking, and other similar intercourse,
and no company be had with him that they may not become contaminated by intercourse with him, nor made partakers of his sins;
but that the sinner may be made ashamed, pricked in his heart, and convicted in his conscience, unto his reformation. I Cor.
5:9-11; II Thess. 3:14.
Yet, in shunning as well as in reproving, such moderation and Christian discretion must be used, that it may conduce, not
to the destruction, but to the reformation of the sinner. For, if he is needy, hungry, thirsty, naked, sick, or in any other
distress, we are in duty bound, necessity requiring it, according to love and the doctrine of Christ and His apostles, to
render him aid and assistance; otherwise, shunning would in this case tend more to destruction than to reformation.
Therefore, we must not count them as enemies, but admonish them as brethren, that thereby they may be brought to a knowledge
of and to repentance and sorrow for their sins, so that they may become reconciled to God, and consequently be received again
into the church, and that love may continue with them, according as is proper. II Thess. 3:15.
XVIII. Of the Resurrection of the Dead, and the Last Judgment
Finally, concerning the resurrection of the dead, we confess with the mouth, and believe with the heart, according to Scripture,
that in the last day all men who shall have died, and fallen asleep, shall be awaked and quickened, and shall rise again,
through the incomprehensible power of God; and that they, together with those who then will still be alive, and who shall
be changed in the twinkling of an eye, at the sound of the last trump, shall be placed before the judgment seat of Christ,
and the good be separated from the wicked; that then everyone shall receive in his own body according to that he hath done,
whether it be good or evil; and that the good or pious, as the blessed, shall be taken up with Christ, and shall enter into
life eternal, and obtain that joy, which eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath entered into the heart of man, to
reign and triumph with Christ forever. and ever. Matt. 22:30, 31; Dan. 12:12; Job 19:26, 27; Matt. 25:31; John 5:28; II Cor.
5:10; I Cor. 15; Rev. 20:12; I Thess. 4:15; I Cor. 2:9.
And that, on the other hand, the wicked or impious, as accursed, shall be cast into outer darkness, yea, into the everlasting
pains of hell, where their worm shall not die, nor their fire be quenched, and where they, according to holy Scripture, can
nevermore expect any hope, comfort, or redemption. Mark 9:44; Rev. 14:11.
May the Lord, through His grace, make us all worthy and meet, that this may befall none of us; but that we may thus take
heed unto ourselves, and use all diligence, that on that day we may be found before Him unspotted and blameless in peace.
These, then, as has been briefly stated before, are the principal articles of our general Christian faith, as we teach
and practice the same throughout in our churches and among our people; which, in our judgment, is the only true Christian
faith, which the apostles in their time believed and taught, yea, testified with their life, confirmed with their death, and,
some of them, also sealed with their blood; wherein we in our weakness with them and all the pious, would fain abide, live,
and die, that we 'may afterwards obtain salvation with them through the grace of the Lord.
Thus done and finished in our united churches, in the city of Dordrecht, the 21st of April, 1632